Freedom of Movement and Travel is an Enemy of the State

“Travel is fatal to prejudice, bigotry, and narrow-mindedness, and many of our people need it sorely on these accounts.  Broad, wholesome, charitable views of men and things cannot be acquired by vegetating in one little corner of the earth all one’s lifetime.”                                                                             

Scottish Independence From the Stockholm Syndrome

Scots, fearless clansmen of the past, always prepared for the worst, have through time become self-inflicted victims of the Stockholm syndrome.  They became afraid of an independence from others’ yoke.  This reason alone was a significant contributor to the failed 2014 referendum for Scotland’s (and Scottish) independence.  If the next referendum occurs in a not too distant future it may pass, but it should not pass for the wrong reasons. Peripheral Fear and the Fear of Periphery People of Scottish

Culture Change and Conflict in the Mountains (of Montenegro and Northern Albania)

The process of cultural transition in the Balkans’ mountains has been anything but slow.  From empires to nation-state political systems, feudal to socialist and capitalist, totalitarian to democratic, folk to market economy, are just some of the rapid culture changes that occurred during just the last several generations.  Peaceful harmony, however, was seldom achieved during the transitional period. Rather, the change frequently resulted in a (cultural) conflict.  Among the main reasons was the inadequate amount of time for people to

National Security Advisors and Geographical Analysis Downrange

“Americans have to learn geography, because they are living now in a world in which they’re no longer isolated. . .and they simply will not make—will not be able to make—sense out of what they read in their newspapers and about the decisions their government makes unless they understand some historical and above all, geographical, relationships.” Henry Kissinger (former National Security Advisor)   The Problem with The Double Ds Denigration and degeneration are frequently combined and parts of the same

Quarters and Corners of Jerusalem’s Old City

Embassy Affairs If the United States Embassy in Israel, as it has been reported, relocates from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem, this action could be a transition with potentially serious consequences.  Disruption of the spatial status quo in Jerusalem—and its Old City—a place whose importance cannot be exaggerated, is a vital aspect in the regional geography of conflict. [Individuals or groups always seek to grow in power by trying to establish control over more space than before.] Attachment to a place

Generational (?) Change and the Continuum of Geography of Conflict

Almost daily we hear statements about generational differences as if “generations” actually exist as facts, social and behavioral reality. They do not, because people are born every day.  Individuals are facts and generations are abstract concepts created by someone else—for their own beneficial purpose—to arbitrarily bind many individuals together.  This is similar to a relationship between forests (concept) and trees (facts).  Everyone can see where trees grow.  Yet, most of us could not agree on where to demarcate the boundaries

The Landscape of Fear, Paranoia, and Galvanization of Masses

“Every American should be alarmed by Russia’s attacks on our nation.  There is no national security interest more vital to the United States of America than the ability to hold free and fair elections without foreign interference.  That is why Congress must set partisanship aside, follow the facts, and work together to devise comprehensive solutions to deter, defend against, and, when necessary, respond to foreign cyberattacks.”  (John McCain, U.S. Senator, January 5th, 2017) Definition of paranoia (Merriam-Webster): A psychosis characterization

The Time Has Arrived to Listen to the Prophets

We live in a world of euphemisms.  Career politicians have become “leaders,” illegal aliens are now “undocumented immigrants,” and fake news outlets have transformed into “mainstream media.”  Everywhere we look, plain facts are wrapped in a cloudy camouflage (1).  Considering where the world is going, the only thing left is to trust and believe the prophets, particularly the ones who were warning us about future conflicts all along.  Prominent among them are the 19th century Serbian prophets, Milos and Mitar

Holiday Season Anniversaries: Dissolution of the Soviet Union (1991)

“Appearances to the mind are of four kinds. Things either are what they appear to be; or they neither are, nor appear to be; or they are, and do not appear to be; or they are not, and yet ap­pear to be. Rightly to aim in all these cases is the wise man’s task.” Epictetus Above the Fold A quarter century has passed since the Soviet Union, an “Evil Empire” (Reagan 1983), dissolved.  Gone were the fears of mutual nuclear

Traces of Places in Our Mind and Service to Global Awareness

Unclaimed Benefits If by simply visiting a place one could gain essential knowledge, truck drivers would be expert geographers.  This does not mean, however, that by visiting places a lay person cannot gain an amount of knowledge that may become beneficial to his/her future development.  Even the shortest of visits allow us to do something a book, an atlas, or an Internet browser cannot—to develop a sense of place through direct interaction with people residing in their own living environment. 

A Tradition of Fear and the Geography of Conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Unlike the United States, where an individual’s biggest fear may be of public speaking, in the Balkans region of Southeastern Europe, the universal fear is that life tomorrow may be better than it is today.  A negative outlook on life is a trait deeply entrenched in local culture and unlikely to change in the foreseeable future.  This worldview stems from a tradition of fear built upon actual experience and compounded through many generations. Although not geographically exclusive, a grim vision

Thanksgiving and the Landscape of the American Flag: Out of Many One

What made the United States a wonderful country to live in, among other factors, was the acceptance of individual differences. To a significant degree an individual could choose what to do with his/her life as long as no one else was harmed by those actions.  It appears that, as a nation, we may be rapidly departing from those principles.  Thanksgiving is an appropriate time to remind ourselves about the values we all together share. For me, it is the representation

Fighting Season in Afghanistan and Other Nonsense

For reasons unknown, some myths about Afghanistan refuse to die.  They are practically engraved in Western consciousness.  Any attempt to provide an alternative viewpoint is greeted with a complete refusal for consideration.  Some of the better-known fables include: Afghanistan is a graveyard of empires The Soviet Union lost the war in Afghanistan Tribal code of honor dictates life in Afghanistan Pashtuns are the majority of population and they won the war against the Soviet Union Afghanistan is a place of

Sense of Place in a Space of Conflict: A Minute in Srebrenica

Tucked between hills, in a landscape resembling a West Virginia “holler,” the Bosnian city of Srebrenica has a painful past. It serves as an example of how a single cultural trait, ethnicity or religion, can separate people who otherwise practice identical lifestyle, share common history and ancestors, and compete over who makes the best home-made plum brandy. A common theme that accelerates local-level atrocities in the Balkans region during turbulent times, and drives people to hurt their neighbors, is a

Conflicts and Roles of Individuals

Personifications of power, heroism, evil, and (in)competence have been prevalent motifs in historical and contemporary narratives about conflicts, at least in the West. Are the conflicts and their solutions products of individuals as prime movers, or, perhaps, is it the individual who surfaces as the product of a cultural system and must act within the system’s confines? An anthropologist, Leslie A. White, argued that such may be the case (In Ethnological Essays, 1987, pp. 287, 290): “To be sure, culture

Hazaras’ Choice

Swinging Pendulum of Destiny One aspect of Afghanistan’s modern history has always been constant: regardless of the turn of events, the Hazaras could count on receiving the short end of the stick.  This is well documented.  Since 2001, however, overall conditions began to improve and the Hazaras managed to benefit from the democratic electoral process.  Their ability for political organization as a voting bloc has far exceeded that of other groups, which particularly for the country’s Pashtuns has not been

Sense of Place in a Space of Conflict: Israel (Part 3)

Cultural Interaction and Landscape The complexity of cultural interaction within Israel’s borders illustrates difficult relationships between and within groups. The most publicized relationship is that between the Israelis and Palestinians, yet that is just one of many layers. Reality dictates that, despite animosities, people cannot avoid interacting within a living area confined by national boundaries. Economic conditions make it impossible for people to remain in a spatial vacuum—although, depending on location, that can vary in terms of intensity and magnitude—and the landscape records

Fight for Light in Kabul City and National Implications

A good portion of Americans’ geographic expertise about Afghanistan, particularly about Kabul City, resembles the attitude of the American movie goers. Entertainment and box office value trumps artistic content, boredom proportionally increases with absence of special effects, subtitles are the ultimate inconvenience, and the story must fit the viewers’ mental framework—often based on short memory—to be appreciated. Official policymaking stems from such an environment, inconceivable to many of us that the rest of the world does not operate along the

The Flagellants and the Black Death: Intelligence Community’s Zeal for Human Geography

Definition and Application Geography, and for that matter one of its sub-disciplines, human geography, is not a scientific discipline defined on the basis of the content of analysis. Geography—human and physical—is a scientific discipline defined on the basis of the method of (spatial) analysis. What separates geographers, a small group within the Intelligence Community (IC), and their tradecraft from others is how they study and analyze topics and regions, not what they study. The effectiveness of a skilled geographer correlates

Sense of Place in a Space of Conflict: Israel (Part 2)

Communities and the inside borders Israel is a young country situated on an ancient land and populated by diverse groups of people. Each of the groups holds onto its own traditional cultural traits. In order to properly function as a state and to minimize conflicts within and among the groups, Israel continuously seeks to find a fine balance between preservation of traditional and integration of modern cultural traits within the society. This continuous challenge rarely receives serious attention in international